Biology of Massage

Published on Sep 17, 2012

Full Story -- -- A new study shows there are sustained, cumulative beneficial effects of repeated massage therapy. The effects persist for several days to a week, and differ depending on the frequency of sessions.

Study shows frequent massage sessions boost biological benefits

Psychiatry Clinical Trials at Emory

Bio: Mark Hyman Rapaport, MD

No Such Thing As A Knot!

So your massage therapist told you that you have "knots," or maybe "the most knots I've ever felt!" What is a knot, and what can you do to get rid of them? Well, I've got good news: There is no medical phenomenon known as a "muscle knot." Your muscles don't get knotted up or clumped together when you get stressed, and there are no balls of messed up tissue within your muscle.

So... what is your massage therapist talking about? As I say in the video (0:55), they're probably just talking about tight postural muscles, usually in trapezius, rhomboids, and the spinal erectors. These are naturally very lumpy muscles—in high-tension situations, they can feel quite bumpy, especially where they overlap. If you don't know your anatomy (your massage therapist should, by the way), it could be easy to mistake this for a problem.

Another likely "not-knot" are the many bits of your anatomy that are difficult to identify (4:24), such as the tendon of levator scapulae, the inferolateral border of trapezius, and the many ridges and folds of perfectly healthy muscle. If you've been told that you have knots in your upper back, it's very likely that your massage therapist was just unaware of what they were feeling under their hands.

It's possible that your massage therapist was talking about myofascial trigger points (3:00), a phenomenon with mixed scientific evidence. Here's the theory: You've got taut bands in your muscles that tend to have isolated areas of contraction within them. These can refer pain elsewhere, following predictable patterns. While the referral of pain from one area to another seems to be reliable (if poorly understood), the palpability of trigger points is in question. See this study for an example: , and this article by Paul Ingraham for a comprehensive write-up:

If your massage therapist told you that you have knots, it's likely that they're just using the language and interaction style modeled for them by teachers and colleagues. Those people were mistaken too. Please feel free to let those knots go. If you've got muscle tension that's giving you trouble, that can and will change over time, especially if you make some changes.

To the massage therapists in the crowd, I'd love to hear your thoughts. If you used to tell clients about their knots (I know I did), what made you change your mind? Have you found other language that's more useful, and that creates less stigma? Let's talk about it!

What does your massage therapist mean by "knots"? 
0:55 1. Tight posture muscles.
3:00 2. Trigger points
4:24 3. Mistaken anatomical identity
4:57 What should you do about your "knots"?
The "not-knots":
5:27 The superior angle of the scapula
7:00 Inferolateral trapezius
7:53 Aponeurosis medial to the spine of the scapula
8:30 Infraspinatus
8:58 The "back mouse"

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The Scientific Benefits of Massage

Published on Jun 8, 2015

Check out this video to learn the benefits of massage. We all know massage feels good, but did you also know that research shows it provides numerous health benefits as well?

Many people turn to massage therapy to reduce stress and relax. Clinical studies find significant health benefits associated with the practice. According to the American Massage Therapy Association, massage can help reduce symptoms of an array of conditions, including cancer-related fatigue, osteoarthritis, plantar fasciitis, headaches, and fibromyalgia, all while boosting a person's immune system functioning. 

Massage increases blood circulation and helps the body heal on a cellular level, providing nutrients to tissues helping heal the body. Here's how it works. When the muscles in your body receive deep massage, the activity of proteins known as inflammatory cytokines, which cause inflammation and pain, lessen. At the same time, the levels of proteins that signal the muscle to produce mitochondria, cell structures that provide energy and help muscles recover from stress and activity, increase. 

This process causes very similar pain relieving effects as anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen. For active people, a pre-workout massage can reduce tension in muscles, increase tissue elasticity and relieve stiff joints. A post-workout massage can help improve the rate of recovery and reduce residual muscle fatigue and soreness. You can experience the benefits of massage anytime with an array of products from the Moji massage line.

Check out our website at for more information about our massage products, recovery tips and articles about massage therapy, performance, fitness and wellness. Check out our Moji Minute series for self-massages by body segment, as well as warm up and cool down videos.

Dr. Rhonda Patrick on Sauna Use

Published on Apr 28, 2015

Get the brand new, comprehensive article I wrote on how sauna may affect longevity HERE:

In this video Dr. Rhonda Patrick summarizes a recent study that found that frequency of sauna use was associated with decreased risk of death. Using the sauna 2-3 times per week was associated with 24% lower all-cause mortality and 4-7 times per week decreased all-cause mortality by 40%. 

Rhonda discusses some possible mechanisms that could be responsible for the effect on longevity including the increased production of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and activation of the longevity gene, Foxo3. Heat stress increases the production of heat shock proteins, which prevent protein aggregation and protect against cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Heat stress also activates FOXO3, which activates many other genes that protect against the stress of aging including DNA damage, damage to proteins and lipids, loss of stem cell function, loss of immune function, cellular senescence and more.

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